Adgrl1 (Latrophilin-1) is a calcium-independent receptor of high affinity for alpha-latrotoxin, an excitatory neurotoxin present in black widow spider venom which triggers massive exocytosis from neurons and neuroendocrine cells. Adgrl1 is a receptor for TENM2 that mediates heterophilic synaptic cell-cell contact and postsynaptic specialization, and may be implicated in the regulation of exocytosis. The Adgrl1 gene encodes a member of the latrophilin subfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR). Latrophilins may function in both cell adhesion and signal transduction. In experiments with non-human species, endogenous proteolytic cleavage within a cysteine-rich GPS (G-protein-coupled-receptor proteolysis site) domain resulted in two subunits (a large extracellular N-terminal cell adhesion subunit and a subunit with substantial similarity to the secretin/calcitonin family of GPCRs) being non-covalently bound at the cell membrane. Adgrl1 has been shown to recruit the neurotoxin from black widow spider venom, alpha-latrotoxin, to the synapse plasma membrane. Alternative splicing results in multiple variants encoding distinct isoforms of Adgrl1. Diseases associated with ADGRL1 include Dermatophytosis and Retinal Degeneration, Late-Onset, Autosomal Dominant.