Complex I, or NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase, is a large protein complex of 950,000 Da molecular weight made up by 45 to 46 different subunits. A total of seven of the subunits of the complex are encoded by mitochondrial DNA, while the remainder subunits are nuclear encoded, which are translated in the cytosol and translocated into the organelle for assembly at the inner membrane. The enzyme complex catalyses electron entry from NADH via a flavin (FMN) and several non-heme iron centers. Complex I is sensitive to a wide range of inhibitors, many of which are pesticides or other common environmental toxins, such as rotenone. Complex I dysfunction is a common cause of genetic OXPHOS defects. Altered functioning of this complex is also thought to contribute to several neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. Also, there is evidence of Complex I involvement in diabetes.
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