The protein encoded by this gene is a glutathione-independent prostaglandin D synthase that catalyzes the conversion of prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) to postaglandin D2 (PGD2). PGD2 functions as a neuromodulator as well as a trophic factor in the central nervous system. PGD2 is also involved in smooth muscle contraction/relaxation and is a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation. PTGDS has also been implicated in the development and maintenance of the blood-brain, blood-retina, blood-aqueous humor and blood-testis barrier. Studies with transgenic mice overexpressing this gene suggest that this gene may be also involved in the regulation of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. It is likely to play important roles in both maturation and maintenance of the central nervous system and male reproductive system. PTGDS is the most abundant protein in the cerebral spinal fluid and recent evidence suggests that PTGDS acts as a Beta-Amyloid chaperone and may have a role in the deposition of Ab plaques in Alzheimer's disease.
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