EV71 is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus of the Picornaviridae family. It is known to cause hand, foot, and mouth disease and various neurological pathological conditions, such as aseptic meningitis and ataxia. EV71 is shown to utilize host UDP-glucose glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 1 (UGGT1) to enhance viral replication and virulence. It forms replication complexes (RCs) on cellular membranes that contain a mix of host and viral proteins to facilitate viral replication. During infection viral RNA replication occurs on the cytoplasmic surfaces of single-membrane vesicles derived from the endoplasmic reticulum, and the membranes can serve to accelerate RC assembly during positive-strand genomic RNA replication. It has been shown that 3D polymerase, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that is encoded in the P3 viral genome region, plays a key role in EVA71 replication. Neural progenitor cells are shown to be prone to EV71 infection and that these stem cells can support the active replication of this virus.