Recommended positive controls: Human spleen cells.
IL-21 is a 17 kDa immunomodulatory cytokine produced mainly by Natural Killer Cells (NKT), T helper (Th) 17 and T follicular helper (TFH) cells. In TFH cells, IL-21 expression leads to autocrine signaling through the IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) and STAT3, which leads to additional transcriptional activation by Bcl6. As with IFN gamma for Th1 and IL-4 for Th2 cells, IL-21 is critical for TFH cell development and effector function. IL-21 plays a role in T cell-dependent B cell differentiation into plasma cells and memory cells, stimulation of IgG production and induction of apoptotic signaling in naive B cells. In Th17 cells, IL-21 expression and autocrine feedback through STAT3, IRF4 and ROR gamma t lead to upregulation of the IL-23R, thereby preparing Th17 cells for maturation and maintenance by the inflammatory cytokine IL-23. While upregulating IRF4 and ROR gamma t, IL-21 also mediates the downregulation of Foxp3. IL-21 deficient mice are protected from developing colitis upon chemical treatment by their inability to upregulate Th17-associated molecules. In comparison, elevated levels of IL-21 are present in chemically-induced colitis mouse models.
蛋白别名: CX2; il 21; IL-21; ILN; Interleukin; Interleukin-21; interleukin-21 isoform; Interleukin21; Za11
基因别名: CVID11; IL-21; IL21; Za11
UniProt ID: (Human) Q9HBE4
Entrez Gene ID: (Human) 59067
分子生物学功能: interleukin superfamily