The vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMP) or synaptobrevins are calcium binding proteins specific to eukaryotes. VAMPs, along with synaptosomal associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) and syntaxin, form the core complex of soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins that interact with the soluble proteins N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) and alpha-SNAP. These membrane associated proteins play a key role in the regulation of vesicle membrane fusion with the plasma membrane. The Clostridium tetani neurotoxin is a metalloprotease with specificity for VAMP. In Alzheimer's disease, VAMP levels of all isoforms appear to be significantly lowered. It is suggested that VAMP-2 is a resident protein of the insulin-sensitive glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) compartment and that it is required for GLUT4 vesicle incorporation into the cell surface in response to insulin.
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