Indium • Other Metal
Primary XPS region: In3d
Overlapping regions: N/A
Binding energies of common chemical states:
|Chemical state||Binding energy In3d5/2|
|In metal||443.8 eV|
- Smaller binding energy shifts of some indium compounds compared to indium metal.
- Chemical state differentiation can be difficult with XPS only.
- Collect principal In MNN peak as well as In3d.
- Bigger chemical shifts observed for In MNN compared to In3d.
- See trace In if used as powder mounting foil.
- In3d region has well-separated spin-orbit components (Δmetal=7.6eV).
- Peaks have asymmetric peak shape for metal.
- Loss features are observed to higher binding energy side of 3d3/2 spin-orbit component for In metal.
- In3d peaks may also show asymmetry for indium oxide, if other compounds are present (e.g. hydroxide) or there are vacancies/defects in the oxide lattice.
- Small or negligible binding energy shifts for compounds, such as oxides.
- In3d peaks broaden with respect to metal peaks for compounds.
- Subtle shifts in CIGS samples.
- Use X-ray induced In MNN Auger peaks to aid chemical state assignment.
About this element
Date of discovery: 1863
Name origin: Indigo spectrum
Discoverer: Ferdinand Reich
Obtained from: zinc refining
Melting point: 430 K
Boiling point: 2345 K
Molar volume: 15.76 × 10-6 m3/mol
Shell structure: 2,8,18,18,3
Electron configuration: [Kr]4d105s25p1
Oxidation state: 3
Crystal structure: tetragonal
Most elements were discovered while scientists searched for other materials, and indium is no exception. This very soft, silvery-white metal has a bright luster and emits a high-pitched “cry” when bent. One of the first major applications for indium was as a coating for bearings on high-performance aircraft during World War II. Later, tin-doped indium oxide, transparent and colorless in thin films, became a main component in liquid crystal, flat panel and plasma displays. Not surprisingly the demand for indium has risen dramatically, and lower-cost alternatives, such as carbon nanotubes and conducting polymers, are being studied.