Rhenium • Transition Metal
Primary XPS region: Re4f
Overlapping regions: N/A
Binding energies of common chemical states:
|Chemical state||Binding energy Re4f7/2|
|Re metal||40.6 eV|
|Native oxide||41.7 eV|
- Re4f region has well-separated spin-orbit components (Δmetal=2.43eV).
- Broad loss feature for Re metal appears at ~53eV.
- Peaks in the Re4f region have an asymmetric peak shape for rhenium metal.
- Rhenium compounds, such as the oxide, have symmetric Re4f peaks.
About this element
Date of discovery: 1925
Name origin: Rhines, Germany
Discoverer: Walter Noddack
Obtained from: gadolinite, molybdenite
Melting point: 3453 K
Boiling point: 5900 K
Molar volume: 8.86 × 10-6 m3/mol
Shell structure: 2,8,18,32,13,2
Electron configuration: [Xe]4f145d56s2
Oxidation state: 6,4,±2
Crystal structure: hexagonal
Rhenium, a silver, lustrous metal, has one of the highest melting points of all elements, with only tungsten and platinum being higher. Trace amounts of the element rhenium were discovered spectroscopically in platinum ores in the minerals columbite, gadolinite, molybdenite ,and in platinum ores by the German chemists I. Tacke-Noddack, W. Noddack, and O. C. Berg in 1925. The element is commercially used in powder form; however, rhenium can be solidified by pressing or resistance-sintering in a vacuum or hydrogen atmosphere, creating a contact shape. Rhenium is most often used in platinum-rhenium catalysts to make lead-free, high-octane gasoline and to make jet engine parts. The element is also used in flash lamps for photography and for filaments in mass spectrographs. Rhenium was the last naturally-occurring element to be discovered to date.